5G NR

NetSim is the industry’s leading 5G NR simulation tool used by 400+ organizations across 25+ countries. NetSim is for:

  1. Mobile network operators / regulators assessing feasibility of 5G deployment by conducting simulation studies in topics such as:
    • Peak throughput analysis
    • Max latency analysis
    • Determination power and bandwidth specifications
    • Indoor use cases and outdoor use cases
    • Transmit power and antenna height restriction
  2. Universities / Research institutions conducting R & D in 5G NR

NetSim’s 5G NR Design Window

Overview

  • End-to-End simulation of 5G networks
  • Devices: UE, gNB, 5G Core devices (SMF, AMF, UPF), Router, Switch, Server
  • GUI based with Drag and Drop, Packet Animator and Results Dashboard
  • 5G library interfaces with NetSim's proprietary TCP/IP stack providing simulation capability across all layers of the network stack
  • Discrete Event Simulation (DES) with event level debugging to inspect and control the simulation
  • Application Models - FTP, HTTP, Voice, Video, Email, DB, Custom and more
  • Packet level simulation with detailed packet trace, event trace and NR log file
  • Standalone architecture and based on 3GPP38 series
  • Protocol source C code shipped along with (standard / pro versions)
3GPP 5G Use Case

NetSim Results Dashboard and Plots Window

Devices in NetSim 5G NR Library

  • UE - User Equipment. Similar to LTE UE in 5G NR (New Radio)
  • gNB - Similar to LTE eNB in 5G NR
  • 5G Core –
    • Access Mobility Function (AMF) that coordinates the 5G Standalone registration procedure, SMF and UPF.
    • Session Management Function (SMF) that serves as a control plane entity and is responsible for the session management
    • User Plane function (UPF) that is a data plane component that handles user data
  • Buildings to differentiate between outdoor and indoor propagation

Specifications

  • 5G Core (Based on TS23.501, TS23.502) functions and interfaces:
    • Interfaces: N1/N2, N3, N4, N6, N11, XN
  • 5G NSA deployment architecture (in addition to existing SA mode) for LTE - 5G dual connectivity, to leverage existing LTE RAN/EPC deployments.
    • Option 3 where only LTE core/ EPC is present and no 5G Core devices are present. Here, eNB is the Master Cell and gNB is the Secondary Cell.
      • Option 3: Only eNB connects to EPC and eNB and gNB connects to the XN interface.
      • Option 3a: Both eNB and gNB connects to the EPC. No XN interface.
      • Option 3x: Both eNB and gNB connects to the EPC. eNB and gNB connects to the XN interface.
    • Option 4 where only 5G Core devices are present, and EPC is not available. Here, gNB is the Master Cell and eNB is the Secondary Cell.
      • Option 4: Only gNB connects to all the 5G Core interfaces. eNB connects to the XN interface.
      • Option 4a: gNB connects to all 5G Core interfaces and eNB connects to AMF and UPF through respective interfaces.
    • Option 7 where only 5G Core devices are present, and EPC is not available. Here, eNB is the Master Cell and gNB is the Secondary Cell.
      • Option 7: eNB connects to all 5G Core interfaces. gNB connects only to the XN interface.
      • Option 7a: gNB connects to all the 5G Core interfaces. eNB connects to AMF and UPF through the respective interfaces.
      • Option 7x: gNB and eNB connects to all the 5G Core interfaces.
  • SDAP based on specification: 37.324
    • SDAP entity
    • QoS Flow ID
  • RLC based on specification 38.322
    • TM (Transparent Mode): No RLC Header, Buffering at Tx only, No Segmentation/Reassembly, No feedback (i.e, No ACK/NACK)
    • UM (Unacknowledge Mode): RLC Header, Buffering at both Tx and Rx, Segmentation/Reassembly, No feedback (i.e, No ACK/NACK)
    • Transfer of upper layer PDUs
    • Segmentation and reassembly of RLC Service Data Units (SDU)
    • RLC SDU discard
    • RLC buffer
    • t-reassembly
    • ARQ
    • t-pollRetransmit
    • Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
    • TMD PDU
    • UMD PDU
  • PDCP based on specification 38.323
    • Transmit PDCP SDU
      • Sets the PDCP Sequence Number
      • Adds RLC Header
      • Calls RLC service primitive
    • PDCP Association
    • Maintenance of PDCP sequence numbers
    • Discard Timer
    • Transmission Buffer
    • PDCP Entity
    • t-Reordering Timer
    • Receive buffer
  • MAC Layer based on specification 38.321
    • Mapping between logical channels and transport channels
    • Multiplexing/De-multiplexing of MAC SDUs from one or different logical channels onto transport blocks (TB) to be delivered to the physical layer on transport channels
    • MAC Scheduler featuring Round Robin, Proportional Fair, Max Throughput and Strictly fair algorithms
    • Link Adaptation to change MCS based on CQI
  • PHY Layer
    • Flexible sub-carrier spacing in the NR frame structure using multiple numerologies.
      • FR1 numerology µ = 0, 1, 2
      • FR2 numerology µ = 2, 3
    • All FR1 and FR2 operating Bands in both TDD and FDD
    • Carrier aggregation: Intra-band and Inter-band
    • CQI reporting
      • CQI-MCS
      • MCS-TBS
    • Uplink and downlink physical channel
    • Frame structure and physical resources
    • MIMO
      • Layer count equal to Min (Tx-antenna-count, Rx-Antenna-count)
      • gNB antenna count supported 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128
      • UE antenna count supported 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
    • MIMO Spatial channel model
      • MIMO Spatial Channel Model (SCM), i.e., the channel is represented by a matrix H, whose entry (t, r) models the channel between the t-th and the r-th antenna elements at the transmitter and the receiver, respectively
      • Gaussian channel with Rayleigh fast fading: i.i.d Complex Normal (0, 1) channel (H-matrix) that changes independently every coherence time.
      • Beamforming gain per the eigen values of the covariance (Wishart) matrix
    • Ability to input per gNB pathloss files from 3rd party software tools like MATLAB
    • PHY layer modulations supported
      • BPSK
      • QPSK
      • 16QAM
      • 64QAM
      • 256QAM
    • Physical shared channel in uplink and downlink
  • RF propagation
    • mm-Wave Propagation models (Based on 3GPPTR38.900 Channel Model)
      • Environment
        • Rural Macrocell
        • Urban Macrocell
        • Urban Microcell
        • Indoor Office – Mixed office, Open office
      • UE Position
        • Indoor
        • Outdoor
      • LOS State
        • LOS (Line of Sight)
        • NLOS (Non-Line of Sight)
      • Outdoor to indoor model
        • Highloss Model
        • Low Loss model

Featured Examples

3GPP 5G Use Case

3GPP Use case: Latency and throughput analysis for a dense urban transport scenario involving 50 mobile UEs experiencing handovers with a traffic volume per subscriber of DL 10 Mbps

Understand 5G simulation flow through LTENR log file

Effect of distance on pathloss for different channel models

  • Rural-Macro
  • Urban-Macro
  • Urban-Micro

Effect of UE distance on throughput in FR1 and FR2

  • Frequency Range - FR1
  • Frequency Range - FR2

Impact of MAC Scheduling algorithms on throughput, in a Multi UE scenario

  • Round Robin
  • Proportional Fair
  • Max Throughput
  • Fair Scheduling

Max Throughput for various bandwidth and 𝝁 configurations

Max Throughput for different MCS and CQI

Outdoor vs. Indoor Propagation

  • Outdoor
  • Indoor

4G vs. 5G: Capacity analysis for video downloads

  • 4G
  • 5G

5G Peak Throughput Analysis

  • 3.5 GHz n78 band
    • 100-Mhz no pathloss with 4:1 DL-UL ratio
    • 50-Mhz no pathloss with 4:1 DL-UL ratio
  • 26 GHz n258 band
    • 400-Mhz no pathloss with 4:1 DL-UL ratio
    • 200-Mhz no pathloss with 4:1 DL-UL ratio

gNB Cell Radius for Different Link Budgets

  • 3.5 GHz n78 urban gNB for 1.5 Gbps, 1 Gbps and 0.5 Gbps
  • 26 GHz n258 urban gNB for 6 Gbps, 1 Gbps and 0.2 Gbps

Impact of numerology on a RAN with DL/UL applications involving phones, sensors and cameras

UE Movement vs Throughput

5G KPIs for single and multi-UE scenarios